Friday, August 28, 2020

The effects of amnesia and its different types

The impacts of amnesia and its various sorts Amnesia is characterized as the full or fractional loss of memory that might be brief or changeless, making a noteworthy failure recall significant data to such an extent, that it has moderate to serious consequences for people life (Logsdon). The impacts of amnesia are identified with the sort of amnesia quiet is languishing. The most well-known impact is the powerlessness to review data put away in the drawn out memory. There are a few cases that patient can review past recollections, however he can't make new recollections, or even, unfit to do both review past recollections and make new ones (Nordqvist, 2009). There are numerous elements that cause amnesia, which are arranged in natural and useful. The natural variables are identified with wounds in the cerebrum, and loss of synapses in the frontal, parietal, and transient flaps. A reason for cerebrum injury is the point at which it is happened in auto crashes. The level of memory misfortune ordinarily is relative to the seriousness of harm in the cerebrum. Much of the time, amnesia isn't extreme and the recuperation is short-enduring (Nordqvist, 2009). A natural factor of cerebrum wounds is the mind has endured an infection contamination, for example, encephalitis (irritation), which the mind tissue is influenced by a mixed up assault of the resistant framework, or an inadequate gracefully of oxygen to the mind because of a coronary episode, respiratory trouble, or carbon monoxide harming (Nordqvist, 2009). Another factor of cerebrum injury is the maltreatment of liquor and medications, for example, dozing and burdensome pills, by a drawn out time, causing memory misfortune (Crystal, 2010). The useful elements are identified with enthusiastic stuns brought about by being the casualty of a fierce wrongdoing, youngster or sexual maltreatment, or being engaged with a battle, cataclysmic event, or a fear based oppressor assault (Nordqvist, 2009). Amnesia is introduced in numerous kinds relying upon the results happened to the influenced individual, or any horrible accident the person in question is influenced. The accompanying three sorts of amnesia are identified with the impacts in the people memory and the capacity to review data. Retrograde amnesia is the most widely recognized sort introduced in medical clinics, TV programs, and motion pictures. This is brought about by harm in the worldly flaps and particularly the hippocampus (Ellis-Christensen, 2010). Patients with retrograde amnesia can't remember recollections from the past happened before it is introduced, yet the capacity to frame new recollections and review after the beginning of amnesia isn't influenced (Wall, 2006). Anterograde amnesia is the converse side of retrograde amnesia. This is brought about by the harm to the hippocampus or encompassing cortices, debilitating memory development, and frequently it is changeless if the mind is harmed (Liden, 2010). Patients with anterograde amnesia can't frame new recollections from the moment that it is introduced and to review recollections as of late shaped on the grounds that data isn't moved to the drawn out memory. In any case, patients might have the option to learn new aptitudes without being encouraged again on the grounds that the definitive memory is disabled while the procedural memory keeps on working (Liden, 2010). Albeit anterograde amnesia is changeless when cerebrum harm is introduced, researchers really are examining approaches to apply neural versatility, the capacity of nerves to frame better approaches to recoup lost usefulness, to perform medicines for this and different maladies brought about by mind injury (Liden, 2010). Transient worldwide amnesia is a transitory all out loss of memory and the patient influenced can't remember any data reestablished in memory. The reasons for this illness are unsure, however a few theories build up it could be brought about by a decreased blood stream, an awful accident, stress, or an atypical kind of headache. This ailment will in general opposite itself after some time, however the transitory power outage can keep going for 24 hours or more (Wall, 2006). The accompanying kinds of amnesia are identified with upsetting occasions, or maltreatment of liquor and medications. Horrible amnesia is brought about by a hard hit to the head because of a fender bender. The individual influenced may encounter a short loss of cognizance, or even go into a state of insensibility. Most of cases are impermanent and it endures depending of the seriousness of the injury. Adolescence, or childish, amnesia happens when the individual can't remember occasions from youth. The causes could be this might be related with language improvements, or the conceivable outcomes of certain regions of the cerebrum were not completely full grown during adolescence. Wernike-Korsakoffs amnesia is brought about by extreme maltreatment of liquor, or by lack of healthy sustenance connected to thiamin inadequacy. Patients with this ailment have poor coordination and loss of feeling in the fingers and toes (Nordqvist, 2009). To analyze amnesia in a patient, a specialist will do an assessment to dispose of other potential reasons for memory misfortune, for example, dementia, sadness, a mind tumor, or Alzheimers infection. Initially, the specialist begins the assessment with a point by point clinical history, including the sort of memory misfortune, when the issues began and how they advanced, factors that began amnesia, for example, a head injury or a horrible accident, family ancestry particularly of neurological infection, utilization of medicine or liquor and medications, history of seizures, cerebral pains, sadness or malignancy, and different side effects (language issues, character changes, or weakened capacities) (Test and conclusion, 2009). Next, specialist will do a physical assessment, including a neurological test to check reflexes, tactile capacity, balance, or the physiological parts of the cerebrum and the sensory system (Test and conclusion, 2009). At that point, specialist will do an intel lectual test, testing patients thinking, judgment, short-and long haul memory. At long last, specialist will confirm any interior harm of the cerebrum through MRI, CT outputs, and electroencephalogram (Nordqvist, 2009). Up until this point, there isn't any prescription or medication for the reclamation of memory for patients with amnesia. Luckily in most of cases, amnesia is settled itself with no treatment. In any case, if a basic physical or mental issue is available, a treatment must be created. Word related advisor may assist patients with learning new data to supplant what was lost, or utilizing the current recollections to make new ones (Treatments and medications, 2009). Reality direction helps may assist patients with remembering whether he is encircled with natural articles, photos, scents, and music. In the event that patients are enduring the Wernike-Korsakoffs amnesia, a satisfactory nourishment can help. Entire grain oats, vegetables, nuts, lean pork, and yeast are rich wellsprings of thiamin (Nordqvist, 2009). End Amnesia is a sickness that generally implies halfway or all out memory misfortune as well as the capacity to store new recollections. Wellsprings of amnesia can be natural, for example, cerebrum injury brought about by a mishap, contamination to synapses, oxygen hardship, or maltreatment of liquor and drugs; and utilitarian, for example, horrible accidents or impacts of pressure. Amnesia can be grouped relying upon the components how this is introduced, for example, Wernike-Korsakoffs, horrible, or juvenile amnesia; and on the impacts in the usefulness of the cerebrum, for example, retrograde, anterograde, or transient worldwide amnesia. The analysis of amnesia in a patient relies upon a point by point clinical history so as to dispose of different sorts of malady, physical and intellectual tests, and a check of the cerebrum if a physical issue is available. Amnesia is reversible without anyone else, however on the off chance that physical or mental harm is introduced, medicines like substitution of recollections, reality direction helps, or a solid sustenance for Wernike-Korsakoff illness can be useful answer for resolve amnesia in patients.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Essay --

James Joyce’s tale, ‘A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man’, is a great case of a kã ¼ntslerroman, a kind of a bildungsroman, a story about growing up, which centers around the development of a craftsman. The topic of Stephen Daedalus’ scholarly improvement as a craftsman repeats all through this account by method of the memory of his recollections and the tangible depictions he can give. The development of Stephen’s craftsmanship is confirm by his developing interest with words and stories, Despite the fact that Stephen’s imaginative ability and interests don't appear to be restricted to only one section, prove by the way that he makes melodies out of discussions, â€Å"Pull out his eyes,/Apologise†¦Ã¢â‚¬ (2), he appears to acknowledge words more than all else. Proof of this example develops in the primary entry of the novel, when Stephen reviews Simon Daedalus, his dad, identifying with him the narrative of a â€Å"moocow that was down along the road† and â€Å"a nicens young man named child tuckoo†(1). In spite of the fact that the main section is described by an incompressible example of stream, similar to that of a child’s mind, St...

Friday, August 21, 2020

Bsa 375 Week 2 Individual Paper Essay

IT Solutions: Proposal for New HR System By College of Phoenix BSA/375 09/02/2013 Proposition for New Human Resource System In our mission to ever better ourselves the IT office, of Riordan Manufacturing, is presenting this Request for Proposal to coordinate an increasingly advanced, best in class, data frameworks innovation in our Human Resources division. Riordan Manufacturing has consistently strived to better ourselves by staying aware of innovation in the entirety of our working frameworks and our assembling frameworks. We will probably stay at the front line of the assembling network as we continue driving the path in the entirety of our business frameworks and, simultaneously, keeping the vibe of a client well disposed organization. We need to ensure that our clients can have a sense of security in the information that we will do what is important to satisfy their business needs. Starting at now, our Human Resource, (HR), Operating System, (OS), has missed the mark concerning this objective. It would be ideal if you comprehend that the framework that is set up, while it can finish the job needing t o be done isn't adequate enough for our developing association. At this moment, we are running many separate applications to process the entirety of the HR framework necessities. This procedure isn't just tedious, yet is anything but a cost productive arrangement that this organization is searching for. On the off chance that we need to achieve our objective we have to consolidate all the old HR frameworks into a solitary incorporated application. The IT office is hoping to finish this undertaking in roughly six (6) months, so the new framework can be used in the second quarter of one year from now. We need to have a model framework accessible for testing in around two (2) months before conclusive framework arrangement, for preparing and specialized help purposes. We will probably have all preparation and any issues fixed one (1) month before fire up. Thusly we will have the opportunity to apply any important changes to the framework. The new HR framework will have numerous applications that can be utilized across the greater part of our different business frameworks from Marketing and Sales to Inventory and Warehousing. We are seeking after companywide preparing to be finished inside four (4) months of startup, making the new framework accessible for all offices before the finish of the (third) quarter. The following are a few prerequisites that should be cultivated so the way toward incorporating the new HR framework will go easily. Access the Stakeholders Involved in System Startup The initial phase in setting up the new Human Resource Application, (HRA), is to accumulate data about the framework prerequisites and client needs from everybody that will be associated with the startup and rollout of the new framework. The way toward social event data from included partners can be a dreary procedure if an inappropriate methods are utilized. In this way, to assist this in a deliberate and opportune way we will be passing out examiners to all individuals from the Human Resource Department and to all Department heads. Utilizing Questioners will help the IT office get a thought of what necessities are normal from the new framework. It isn't cost productive to converse with every representative along these lines, it would be helpful for all that each examiner is rounded out in an auspicious way. We will be messaged to every worker on Monday September ninth, 2013 and might want a reaction no later than Thursday September twelfth, 2013, (for handling purposes). Examiners will likewise be accessible on the Employee Web Site under HR applications. Another procedure of social event the required data will be to direct gathering gatherings with the HR division officials and chiefs. The IT division will hold Joint Application Development, (JAD), meetings beginning Monday September sixteenth, 2013. These meetings are overseen forms that the IT office uses to assemble data in a productive, firm way. We need to utilize group inclusion with the goal that we can increase a firm comprehension of what you, the customer, will look for from the new HR framework. The JAD meeting will help we all mutually build up the new framework. Guaranteeing Successful Gathering of Project Information We, in the IT office, need to ensure that each framework prerequisite that perhaps be requested will be sent at the hour of the framework model presentation. To guarantee that this objective is cultivated we should assemble right, succinct and important data from every one of you, the stakeholdersâ involved in the framework improvement. Assembling great data will assist us with building up the framework formed to what you need. We comprehend that the data gathering procedure can be an overwhelming errand, however with your assist we with canning make this as easy as could be expected under the circumstances. Keep in mind, without your contribution on this venture the IT division can't rollout a framework that will be a successful instrument for Human Resources and the remainder of Riordan Manufacturing. The capacity to accumulate great data is the most significant procedure in all pieces of each System Development Life Cycle, (SDLC), and with everyone’s support in this proced ure the framework rollout will go easily. Building up the Project Scope and Project Feasibility Riordan Manufacturing needs all ventures that go into improvement to be fruitful. In the event that we need the new Human Resource framework to be effective we should establish an undertaking extension framework. Indeed, even with the input and inclusion of every partner and the accomplishment of different undertakings conveyed from the IT office quite possibly this new framework can at present fizzle. At some random time there will be vital changes to the task. These progressions can have a negative impact, however we will probably stay concentrated on the framework necessities. We need to conveys the new framework on schedule and under financial plan with the necessary capacities that are normal. We will likely set up a framework to oversee key parts of the new frameworks advancement: * Project Size †Understand how huge this venture will be * Project Goals †Make sure objectives are set and reachable * Project Requirements †All framework necessities are done To convey a completed task that meets the objectives over our Project Scope should follow a these five (5) steps: * Project Initiation †assess the need of the new framework and convey proper arrangements. * Scope Planning †Create a doable Work Breakdown Structure, (WBS) that graphs all the work that will be done on this undertaking. * Scope Definition †Working with you, the end client, grow in detail the work breakdown the will be required. * Scope Verification †Timely booked work evaluation and adequacy checks by the end client and the IT division during the SDLC of the new application. * Scope Change Control †Put a proper framework set up to control any framework changes that will occur. This willâ limit Scope Creep, (Unauthorized access to changes to the framework). As should be obvious, applying legitimate extension the executives will be critical in the advancement of the new Human Resource framework. End To remain as one of the pioneers in assembling we should continue attempting to develop. While we at Riordan Manufacturing have strived to be the best in the business there are events when we should investigate ourselves and see what changes are required with the goal that we can stay a pioneer in assembling strategies while as yet being a client neighborly association. The present Human Resource framework has fallen behind and is shielding us from keeping up all that we have decided to achieve. Incorporating an increasingly refined, best in class, data framework in our Human Resource office will achieve something other than the above objective. It will smooth out our business applications into a simple to utilize effectively available framework that will be cost proficient with little upkeep. This is the thing that we have consistently strived to achieve and this new framework will keep us on target. With legitimate arranging, making a decent task scope, assembling great, solid and significant data and with your consistent contribution all through the SDLC of the new HR framework we will be ensured of an effective venture fulfillment and rollout. Much obliged to You. IT System Manager 09/01/2013 References Wich, Darren. 2009. â€Å"Project Scope Management† IS 6840. Online Heldman, Kim. PMP, April fourteenth, 2009. â€Å"The Importance of the Project Scope Statement†. Lakewood, Colorado. On the web. Blankenburg, Joanne. September ninth, 2012 â€Å"Use Joint Application Design (JAD)

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

The Unusual Secret of Gmat Argumentative Essay Samples

The Unusual Secret of Gmat Argumentative Essay Samples When you purchase an argumentative essay from Ultius, you may rest assured our expert writers will do anything it requires to guarantee the sample order is 100% correct before you login and download this, and if your criteria has changed, no issue, totally free revisions are included with each purchase. After you've decided on a subject, think about the advantages and disadvantages of the problem. Moreover, our English-speaking writers make sure every order has original content and a suitable structure. A controversial issue is going to have nearly equal quantity of folks supporting the issue as the opposition. For instance, you ought to keep the readers in mind as you select arguments to strengthen your position. When choosing an issue to argue, you should select a topic that has more than 1 side. Though the response may start to deal with the assigned task, it provides no development. Our convenient and confidential message process is right here in order to assist you. Where to Find Gmat Argumentative Essay Samples Buy argumentative essays from us and find the very best part of study that you deserve from a trustworthy essay writing service. If you understand what you will create GMAT essay, be sure you search the world wide web and read more books. If you get a very clear essay, readers will understand easily what you would like to tell. Nowadays it is extremely difficult to locate a trustworthy essay writing service. For instance, a PDF file is going to be noted PDF in the search engine. There's several essays completed by them. Whenever you aren't exactly certain how to compose an argument essay, you ought to get a great sample paper because it is going to end up being a valuable resource that enable you to finish the assignment effectively. There are numerous argument essays on such sites. Custom against the death penalty papers, a succinct murder isn't right, the third objection against capital punishment is that it's always possible an inmate. For instance, there isn't any way you may argue on the subject of whether humans walk on two legs because it is a known fact with no attached debate. When you drop an argument, it is likely that you only used opinion to back up your position. You'll certainly lose the argument if nobody wishes to read your essay. The Hidden Gem of Gmat Argumentative Essay Samples Bridget's essay is extremely strong, but there continue to be a couple little thing s that could be made better. Becoming in a position to argue in a logical and reasonable manner is an excellent life skill. The net has made our life a good deal simpler. When it's your time to compose argumentative essay, you came to the correct spot. Gmat Argumentative Essay Samples Ideas It's fine to jot down simple thoughts and sentence fragments. Writing has existed for quite a very long time. Be aware that excerpt is a fancy word for a brief piece taken from a lengthier work. Furthermore, our writers know that buying an argumentative essay is an extremely peculiar practice. Since you can well imagine that such essays aren't written by professionals so they may not be of the quality that you are interested in finding. One of the simplest methods to comprehend how to establish and format this sort of essay is to use an example for a guide. Writing argumentative essays requires a lot of time to finish, especially when you don't have an assigned topic. So when you purchase sample argumentative essays from Ultius, you will have the peace of mind you have earned from a comprehensive writing service. The most frequently encountered paper writing service that the vast majority of our clients require is essay writing. Our consumer writing services are constructed around the idea of providing quality argumentative essays and being the ideal sample writing service on the web. There's a remarkable solution to your issue!

Friday, May 15, 2020

Music Therapy And Its Effects - 2117 Words

Following the developing of social sciences, everybody has started to get concerned about the issue if music is good for healthy body and mental recently. This phenomenon makes the music therapy becomes popular. Music therapy is defined as â€Å" the therapeutic use of music as to reduce anxiety, improve cognitive functioning, promote physical rehabilitation, or enhance interpersonal communication that typically involves listening to music, singing, playing musical instruments, or composing music â€Å" in the In other words, through the activity of music people can improve physical or psychological disease that achieves cure and health. For many centuries, music has been applied as a therapeutic tool and effected some disease treatment of methods. In 18 century, the idea of music as a therapy that showed the article in Columbian Magazine titled † Music Physically Considered. † In 19 century, many psychiatrist started to use the music to cure dise ase and even experiment it to their patients. In 20 century, especially after World War I and World War II, throughout apply the music therapy for the veterans suffering both physical and emotional injury from the war. Music extremely effective solve the variety of diseases, for example, depression, during pregnancy, and dementia. Nowadays, music therapy extends to application in hospital or school of disability children. In the end, the professional organization was established that increased theShow MoreRelatedMusic Therapy And Its Effects854 Words   |  4 PagesMusic therapy is not currently a widely recognized option of treatment. If an individual goes to see a healthcare professional nowadays, it would be highly unlikely that that individual would receive a recommendation for music therapy treatment. Yet, music therapy is an established field of medical science that dates back to the time of the ancient Greeks. So, what is music therapy? Music therapy is defined as â€Å"tre atment including creating, singing, moving to, and/or listening to music† (â€Å"What isRead MoreMusic Therapy And Its Effects1064 Words   |  5 PagesMusic Therapy is the use of music interventions in the healthcare field to help patients accomplish their goals with an accredited professional. It can be used to treat a variety of ailments, both physical and a mental. Music therapy interventions can be designed to promote an individual’s well-being, manage their stress levels, and even to enhance their memory. The purpose of this paper is to look at the way that nurses can use music therapy as a way to heal someone from the inside out. It willRead MoreMusic Therapy And Its Effects On Society1697 Words   |  7 PagesFortunately, for the people facing these issues, there is. Music therapy is a relatively new approach that doctors, teachers, and many others are taking to help heal and improve the quality of life for their patients and students. It’s starting to become more common around the United States and is expected to become even more popular in the future. Books like Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart support the idea of music therapy by demonstrating how music can be used to soothe and improve the moods of individualsRead MoreThe Effects Of Music Therapy On Patients1061 Words   |  5 Pagesof physical and psychological symptoms and side effects that negatively impact their quality of life and ability to cope with and manage an illness. Providing a choice of music durin g a receptive music therapy session may not only distract the patient from negative affective states, but also may provide a sense of autonomy and control over a patient s immediate environment. The purpose of the essay was to determine whether receptive music therapy can improve two general dimensions of emotional experienceRead MoreThe Effect Of Music Therapy On Cognition1592 Words   |  7 Pages The Effect of Music Therapy on Cognition in Children with Retts Syndrome Brandon Akers Arkansas State University Author Note This research is proposed to better understand the impact of music therapy on cognition in children with Retts Syndrome. The knowledge presented is based on my own findings from a review of the empirical and theoretical literature relevant to this topic. It is important to study the effect music therapy has on Retts Syndrome candidates in order to better teach necessaryRead MoreThe Effects Of Music And Music Therapy On Mental Health1540 Words   |  7 PagesThe Effects of Music and Music Therapy on Mental Health A Review of Studies Done â€Å"The American Music Therapy Association (AMTA) defines music therapy as ‘an established health profession in which music is used within a therapeutic relationship to address physical, emotional, cognitive, and social needs of individuals’† (Barnett Shale, 2013, p.48). Music Therapy (MT) is shown to be able to help people with many different kinds of mental health problems such as anxiety, stress, and minorRead MoreMusic Therapy And Its Effect On Children1883 Words   |  8 PagesMusic plays an important role in everyone’s life and, although the majority of people nowadays have heard of music therapy, not many are exactly sure of what it is nor are they aware of its beneficial effects (Peters 2). Children, in particular, have shown significant improvement in their disabilities when subjected to musical therapy. Music therapist Ulla Holck’s studies show that â€Å"music therapy can meet the basic needs of children with special needs, such as behavioral problems, attention skillsRead MoreMusic Therapy And Its Effect On Society1786 Words   |  8 Pagesabout my own experiences with music and how music affects all mankind, I wondered how others were affected by music. Does music really make a difference or is it just an opinion. As early as the days of Aristotle and Plato, it was believed music had healing powers. (1- AMTA) When I began researching music therapy, it was much different than what I expected but I do believe it is a career that can beneficial to all. As I continued to explore the benefits of music therapy, I found much research thatRead MoreThe Therapeutic Effects of Music Therapy2408 Words   |  10 Pagesobjective of music therapy is to achieve therapeutic effects coinciding with or without the use of drug therapy. Patients in the hospital setting and at home are utilizing this new wave of therapy. While opening gates for better communication during treatment, it also helps patients better mana ge their illness, disease, or stressful situation. Primarily, music therapy is used for patients suffering with long-term disabilities such as dementia, in crisis situations that have devastating mental effects, inRead MoreThe Effects Of Music Therapy On Children With Autism1406 Words   |  6 Pagesthose healing methods is Music Therapy. Music Therapy has been shown to help many people of all age groups, a specific group being children with autism. It helps benefit children with autism by improving their communication and social skills. Just simply listening to music calms and puts the brain at ease. Music Therapy is beneficial to this specific group because though they may have deficits socially, they show none when it comes to musical affect. This form of therapy allows autistic children

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Globalization And Its Effect On Instructional Development

Globalization as an idea has been developed as a part of both constructive and adverse route by diverse individuals in unique circumstances. Everybody takes a look at the idea from his or her perspective and hobbies. On the other hand, there is an understanding among all academics that globalization has had a tremendous effect on social orders on economic, political, and social levels. From the writing on globalization, it appears as though everything is globalizing in this world as a consequence of the change of the world to a little town, a worldwide town. This implies fringes are not any more unusual obstructions to any sort of association furthermore, mix between countries. It is contended in the writing that such effect of†¦show more content†¦Globalization in training intends to make way for disclosure and to shape the instruction area. Globalization in instruction intends to acquire the progressions the working of the instructive foundations in connection with the out side organizations. I might want to talk about every one of the things I have said in this section and might want to clarify globalization in education great and terrible qualities in each developing country. Many people believe that, education is one of key local factors that can be used to moderate some impacts of globalization from negative to positive and convert threats into opportunities for the development of individuals and local community in the inevitable process of globalization. How to maximize the positive effects and minimize the negative impacts of globalization is a major concern in current educational reform for nationally and given the phenomenon of â€Å"globalization†, economic growth of the last decades has been accompanied by a worsening of inequalities in the world and in particular, inequalities of access to knowledge. As an experience I grew up in a developing country and I learned in my country, Ethiopia from elementary to my first two years of high school. I could not say that I faced some difficulties but I can say that people who live in the rural area of Ethiopia, especially women and girls face a lot more complications to go to school than men around. It is believed that women should be in a kitchen around most of

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Swissness Bill free essay sample

In the era of globalization, manufacturing processes are no longer confined to a single country. As a result, it is often challenging for consumers to know the true origin of the products that they buy. At the same time, a product’s country-of-origin can have significant influence on consumers’ perceptions of the products. Swiss products present an exceptionally good reputation around the world; consumers perceive Swiss products as highly reliable and with very high quality. In fact, stating their â€Å"Swiss origin† induces substantial economic value for the producers; products can be marked up by at least 20% 1 with the â€Å"Switzerland† country-of-origin label alone. Essentially, the â€Å"Swiss† origin acts as a brand on its own. As a result, the â€Å"Swiss† brand has attracted increasing number of â€Å"free-riders† and instances of wrongful uses. The Swiss officials are concerned about the potential damages that such wrongful uses can bring to the â€Å"Switzerland† brand. The deceptive usages of the â€Å"Switzerland† brand may mislead consumers and cause them to lose confidence to all other Swiss products; hence damaging the value of the â€Å"Switzerland† brand as a whole. As a result, the Federal Council of Switzerland proposed the Swissness Bill in an attempt to promote and strengthen the protection the â€Å"Swiss† brand. In this essay, I will explain why the Swissness Bill was proposed under globalization and the impacts of the Bill on local producers and consumers. 2. Why was the Swissness Bill proposed under globalization? 1 Stephan Feige, Benita Brockdorff, Karsten Sausen, Peter Mathias Fischer, Urs Jaermann, Sven Reinecke, 2008. Swissness Worldwide – International Study on the Perception of the Brand Switzerland, University of St. Gallen. 1 In this section, I will first analyze the â€Å"Switzerland† brand itself to explain why a brand, which is essentially just a country-of-origin label, requires protection. Secondly, I will explain how globalization addresses he need of such protection by looking at the influences from contemporary global production networks. Thirdly, I shall look at the current situation of statutory rules concerning the protection of â€Å"Switzerland† designations to explain the necessity of the Swissness Bill. 2. 1 â€Å"Swissness†- the â€Å"Switzerland† Brand The term â€Å"Swissness† has been used widely in anything that is typically Swiss since the late 1990s. In essence, the term refers to the application of Switzerland as a brand to Swiss products 2 . By applying â€Å"Swissness† to one’s brand, the positive attributes associated with Switzerland- such as efficiency, exclusivity, high quality, precision and reliability- can be transferred to the brand; this is commonly referred to as co-branding 2. Essentially, the Switzerland brand is a nation brand. Like all other nation brands, it is a common property. Unlike other ordinary product brands, it does not have a brand owner who can manage the brand. Ideally, a brand should provide consistent values across its products to generate a homogenous identity. However, the values that the â€Å"Switzerland† brand delivers can be rather inconsistent as it is a common property that can essentially be used by anyone. The management of the Switzerland brand is essentially carried out by all the brands which present themselves as Swiss. The activities and actions that these brands conduct can directly affect the Switzerland brand- if these actions are inconsistent with the values of the â€Å"Switzerland† brand, they can potentially weaken the brand. To avoid such 2 Regine Wieder Veronika Hubl, 2012. What is Swissness?. School of Management and Law, Zurich University. 2 inconsistencies, it is crucial for the Swiss officials to take actions to coordinate and manage the â€Å"Switzerland† brand. 2. 2 Global Production Network Consumers are willing to pay premiums for the â€Å"Switzerland† country-oforigin label because of the positive attributes associated with conventional Swiss products and Switzerland itself. According to studies conducted by the University of St. Gallen, the premium can amount to 20% of the original sales price; and even up to 50% for luxury products 3. However, consumers are willing to pay this premium because they expect these â€Å"Swiss† products to be Swiss both inside as well as outside; they expect the â€Å"Swiss† products to be actually made in Switzerland. They expect goods that are produced in Switzerland to have higher quality. In fact, over 80% of Swiss products consumers expect food products that are produced in Switzerland to have stricter controls than those produced elsewhere 4 ; hence they expect food products from Switzerland to have better quality. However, a product under a Swiss brand may not necessarily be fully produced in Switzerland anymore in today’s world of globalization. Therefore, can we still associate the Switzerland attributes to these products even when they are no longer produced in Switzerland? 3 Stephan Feige/Benita Brockdorff/Karsten Sausen/Peter Mathias Fischer/Urs Jaermann/Sven Reinecke: Swissness Worldwide – International Study on the Perception of the Brand Switzerland, University of St. Gallen et al St. Gallen et al. 2008 4 Bern 2007. Origin of Agricultural Products. Demoscope Research Marketing, Federal Office of Agricultural. 3 Transnational Corporations (TNCs) are now able to coordinate and control their production networks across national boundaries, to take advantage of the geographical differences between their factors of production. Many products nowadays consist of parts from all over the world and are produced in more than one country. This raises the question of how much of a production process should a product have in order for it to be considered â€Å"made in Switzerland†. Therefore, it is crucial for Swiss officials to determine the criteria required for such internationally produced products to be considered as â€Å"Swiss†; so that the â€Å"Switzerland† brand can be preserved in the long term. 2. 3 Current Situation The contemporary conditions for the use of â€Å"Switzerland†, â€Å"Swiss made† or other designations are imprecise and thus lead to legal uncertainty. According to the Federal Act on the Protection of Coats of Arms, the â€Å"Swiss coat of arms† may not be registered as a trademark for goods and may not be affixed to goods for commercial purposes† 5 . Using the Swiss cross to indicate a product’s origin is regarded as a commercial purpose and hence is considered illegal. However, non-commercial and decorative uses are considered legal. Yet, in actual situation, distinguishing between the legal decorative usages and the illegal commercial usages can be difficult. It is clear that firms have been exploiting this ambiguity. Similarly, the conditions for the use of â€Å"Switzerland† and â€Å"Swiss† are very general in the Federal Law on the Protection of Trademarks and Indication of Source6. It states that â€Å"the origin of goods shall be determined by the place of manufacture or 5 Federal Law on the Protection of Coats of Arms and Other Public Insignia of 5 June 1931 (WSchG; SR 232. 21) 6 Federal Law on the Protection of Emblems and the Name of the Red Cross of 25 March 1954 (SR 232. 22). 4 by the origin of the basic materials and components used† 7 . However, there is a lack of judicature on the specifications of such conditions; the decision of the commercial court of St. Gallen is one of the very few. It specifies that the manufacturing costs of a product must be at least 50% and the essential manufacturing process must be conducted in Switzerland. However, what is considered â€Å"essential manufacturing process† remains vague and unclear. Moreover, in the international context, the Federal Institute of Intellectual Property often has to forgo litigations against illegal uses of â€Å"Switzerland† designations because of the nature of the â€Å"Switzerland† brand as mentioned above- it is a common property and hence it does not exist in legal sense. Therefore, a legitimate plaintiff cannot be assigned to any â€Å"Switzerland† designations. Consequently, there is no clear legitimacy for the Swiss officials to file any actions against the illegal uses internationally. They can merely â€Å"notify† the illegal parties involved. The current statutory rules and their implementations are inadequate to protect the â€Å"Switzerland† brand. More precise, clearly defined statutory rules should be proposed in order to preserve the â€Å"Switzerland† brand in the long term. 3. The Swissness Bill The existing statutory rule provides very general regulations on the use of â€Å"Switzerland† designations and the conditions of using geographical indications. The proposed legislations, under the Swissness Bill, strives to strengthen the protection of the â€Å"Switzerland† designations by imposing more precise criteria when determining the geographical origin of products and services. It defines precisely how much 7 Article 48, para. 1 Trademark Law 5 â€Å"Switzerland† a product has to be for it to be labeled as â€Å"made in Switzerland†. The specific criteria are summarized below: Natural products must be harvested in Switzerland for them to be considered â€Å"Swiss†. For processed natural products, at least 80 percent of the weight of the raw materials composing the product must be from Switzerland. Moreover, the production process that gives a product its unique characteristic must be conducted in Switzerland. For industrial goods, at least 60 percent of the manufacturing costs must be incurred in Switzerland, including research and development costs. Moreover, at least one essential manufacturing procedure must be conducted in Switzerland. For a service provider, its headquarter and an administrative centre must be located in Switzerland for it to be considered â€Å"Swiss† 4. Impacts on local companies We may now look at how these proposed changes in the statutory rules regarding the designation of Swiss origin affect the local producers. Opposing views are likely to occur between smaller Swiss companies and the larger transnational Swiss companies. 4. 1 Smaller Swiss companies Smaller Swiss companies are likely to welcome the new amendments because most of their productions are located domestically. They are likely to prefer more restrictive statutory rules because they are the ones who have been following the rules and are particularly vulnerable to the damages brought by the free-riders. Free-riders who present their products as â€Å"Swiss†- but are not originated from Switzerland in 6 actual fact- may carry contradicting attributes that damage the â€Å"Switzerland† brand as a whole. Their qualities are often inferior to those of the authentic Swiss products. This causes damages to the â€Å"Switzerland† brand as a whole because consumers are deceived and are led to perceive Swiss products as having deteriorating quality. The damage of the â€Å"Switzerland† brand is likely to affect small Swiss companies more significantly because their branding strategy are much more reliant on the co-branding effect from the â€Å"Switzerland† brand. They do not have the resources that the large companies have to develop extensive marketing campaigns to induce a strong brand image themselves. Consumers generally place more weight on the country-of-origin when they are faced with the weaker brands. 4. 2 Large Swiss Companies On the other hand, large Swiss companies are likely to oppose the new amendments because of their global production network. In most of the cases, these large companies were able to grow to such an extent in the first place because they were able to internationalize their value chain activities to grab hold of the comparative advantages of different countries. These locational-specific advantages are superior features of a country- such as natural resources, land, labour and climatethat create competitive advantages for the companies. However, with the new amendments, they may have to abandon some of these comparative advantages to keep hold of their â€Å"Swissness† competitive advantage. Consequently, they may become less competitive in the international market. 4. 3 Local companies as a whole Despite the potential opposing views from different companies, I believe the Swissness Bill can be beneficial to local companies overall. The Bill protects those 7 who are truly â€Å"Swiss†, barring against the free-riders who do not carry the â€Å"Swissness† attributes but are trying to take advantages from presenting themselves as â€Å"Swiss†. It protects the core competitive advantage of many â€Å"Swiss† brands by ensuring the delivery of consistent â€Å"Swiss† values to consumers. Large transnational Swiss companies should not lose sight of their core competitive advantage when they internationalize. The â€Å"Switzerland† brand is a common property that requires collaborative efforts from all its stakeholders to manage and protect against inconsistent usages. At the same time, the values of the â€Å"Switzerland† brand that they are able to preserve and create can be shared by all the stakeholders. 5. Impacts on Consumers It is apparent that consumers can benefit from the Bill. The â€Å"Swiss† products that they purchase under the Bill are truly â€Å"Swiss† both inside and outside. The products are ensured to deliver consistent â€Å"Swiss† attributes to consumers. Consumers are promised to enjoy these â€Å"Swiss† attributes in return for the premium they pay on the â€Å"Swiss† products. However, there is a possibility that the extra costs of production, as a result of large transnational companies having to relocate some of their value-chain activities back to Switzerland, will be borne by the consumers. Therefore, consumers may have to pay even higher premiums for â€Å"Swiss† products in the future. Nevertheless, despite the possibility of higher premiums incurred by the â€Å"Switzerland† brand, consumers will no longer be deceived by the wrongful uses of the â€Å"Switzerland† brand, which I believe is the more important issue. 6. Conclusion 8 In the contemporary era of globalization, distinguishing a product’s countryof-origin can be challenging due to the complexity of the global production networks nowadays. This issue poses significant threats to genuine Swiss products specifically because of the special co-branding effect derived from â€Å"Switzerland† as a brand itself on the Swiss products. As a result, the Swissness Bill was proposed and it aims to protect the â€Å"Switzerland† brand by imposing stricter criteria for determining whether a product can be considered as being â€Å"Swiss†. The impacts of the Bill on local producers can vary according to their specific circumstances but I believe a well-managed and consistent â€Å"Switzerland† brand can strengthen the core competitive advantages of most Swiss products. In turn, consumers also benefit from the certainty about the value that the â€Å"Swiss† products deliver. Therefore, the Swiss Bill will be a beneficial decision for Switzerland to implement fully in the future.